Tchaikovsky first had the idea for an opera on the subject of Shakespeare's tragedy Romeo and Juliet (Ромео и Джульетта) in May 1878, and although he returned to the subject throughout his later life, he never fulfilled this ambition. One one of these occasions he did go so far as to sketch music for a scene between the two lovers (TH 215 ; ČW 442), which uses themes from his earlier overture-fantasia on the same subject. This was found among his papers after his death, and it was completed and orchestrated by Sergey Taneyev in 1894.
From the play Romeo and Juliet (ca. 1594) by William Shakespeare (1564–1616), in a Russian translation by Aleksandr Sokolovsky (1837–1915).
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In 1869 Tchaikovsky wrote an overture-fantasia to Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet. Almost a decade later, he first considered the tragedy as the basis for an opera. 'You know that I am presently engaged on something which I have thought about for a long time', Tchaikovsky wrote to Nadezhda von Meck on 23 May/4 June 1878. 'This evening in Kiev, while my sister and Modest were being introduced to Rossi, I was left to look after the children, and I read to them from Romeo and Juliet, which they saw at the theatre. Suddenly. the idea came into my head to write an opera on this subject... I am not put off by the operas by Bellini and Gounod. In these Shakespeare is corrupted and distorted beyond recognition. Don't you find that this magnificent, archetypal drama is admirably suited to music? I have already talked about this with Modest. He is worried by the magnitude of the task... The scenario to this opera will require much thought, and I would have to dedicate all my efforts to this' 
On 25 May/6 June 1878, in a letter to Modest Tchaikovsky, the composer set out a detailed description of the characters in his future opera : 'I will be writing Romeo and Juliet. All your objections evaporate before the enthusiasm with which this subject seizes me. This shall be my definitive work. It's odd how until now I hadn't seen how I was truly destined to set this drama to music. Nothing could be better suited to my musical character. No kings, no marches, and none of the encumbrances of grand opera—just love, love, love And how delightful the secondary characters are: the nurse, Lorenzo, Tybalt, Mercutio. Please don't fear monotony. The first love duet will be completely different from the second. In the first all will be bright and clear: love. unstoppable love. In the second—tragedy. From being children full of innocent love, Romeo and Juliet have become people, loving and suffering, caught up in tragic, desperate love. I want to set about this as soon as possible' .
Tchaikovsky also wrote about this infinitely rich Shakespearian tragedy to Nadezhda von Meck on 13/25 July 1878, again stressing his enthusiasm for it as an opera subject and wanting to preserve 'the development of the action as Shakespeare has it, without all the deviations and additions made by Berlioz and Gounod' .
In 1878 Tchaikovsky, busy with other work, did not manage to realize the opera, and he did not refer to the subject for some time. But in the autumn of 1881 the idea of an opera on the subject of Romeo and Juliet once again appears in Tchaikovsky's letters. On 3/15 October the composer wrote to Anatoly Tchaikovsky: 'Doubts about the fate of The Maid of Orleans have been like a sharp knife for me during last days in Moscow. But the best way to rid oneself of one task is to embark upon another. and I have been pondering what subject I should choose for a new opera (Mazepa does not please or attract me). After much consideration, I think that my talents would be best suited to that old but always fresh subject—Romeo and Juliet. And so my decision is final: I shall write an opera on this subject. I feel that if I'm painstaking enough it will turn out well, and this will enable me to put The Maid completely out of my mind' .
It was probably at this time Tchaikovsky that made sketches for a duet scene with Romeo and Juliet in the garden (Act III, Scene 5 of the play), using the love-theme from his earlier overture-fantasia.
In a letter to Herman Laroche of 9/21 September 1894, Modest Tchaikovsky wrote: 'Petya reworked Romeo and Juliet himself, basing it on Sokolovsky's translation (he made pencil notes by the relevant passage in the book), but it had no proper ending so I provided one myself. Moreover I had a say in the final form of the music; though only in trying to preserve the character of the scene, which does not always come over in the translation' .
The notes in the book referred to by Modest Tchaikovsky provide the only evidence for Tchaikovsky's preliminary work on the opera. They appear in Volume III of the composer's set of the complete works of Shakespeare (the 5th scene from Act IIII of Romeo and Juliet). These notes clearly show that Tchaikovsky envisaged not a duet, but a whole scene, since besides Romeo and Juliet, Juliet's nurse also appears. The reasons why Tchaikovsky did not write an opera on Romeo and Juliet in 1881 remain unclear .
Taneyev's completion has one movement (the first 56 bars of which are introduction of his own devising): Andante non tanto quasi Moderato (A minor)—Andante (F major)—Allegro giusto (D-flat major, 277 bars), lasting around 15 minutes in performance.
Taneyev's completion is scored for soloists Juliet (Джульетта) — soprano, Romeo (Ромео) — tenor, and Nurse (Няня) — mezzo-soprano, with an orchestra comprising piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets (A), 2 bassoons + 4 horns (F), 2 trumpets (B-flat), timpani + harp, violins I, violins II, violas, cellos, and double basses.
The first performance of the duet scene, in Sergey Taneyev's completion, took place in October 1894 at the first Russian Symphony Concert in Saint Petersburg, conducted by Yury Bleikhman.
In London the duet was premiered at a concert in the Queen's Hall on 16/28 October 1899, conducted by Henry Wood, with soloists Lillian Blauvelt, May Williamson, and Ellison van Hoose.
In 1895 Pyotr Jurgenson published Sergey Taneyev's completion, in full score and vocal-piano reduction , and both versions were included in volume 62 of Tchaikovsky's Complete Collected Works (1948), edited by Ivan Shishov.
Tchaikovsky's sketches are preserved in the Klin House-Museum Archive (a1, No. 118). The manuscript of Sergey Taneyev's completion is held by the Russian National Museum of Music in Moscow (ф. 85, No. 37).
- See: Romeo and Juliet (projected opera): Recordings
- See also the overture-fantasia Romeo and Juliet.
Notes and References
- ↑Letter 840 to Nadezhda von Meck, 23 May/4 June 1878.
- ↑Letter 842 to Modest Tchaikovsky, 25 May/6 June 1878.
- ↑Letter 871 to Nadezhda von Meck, 13/25 July 1878.
- ↑Letter 1860 to Anatoly Tchaikovsky, 2/14–3/15 October 1878.
- ↑Letter from Modest Tchaikovsky to Herman Laroche, 9/21 September 1894 — Klin House-Museum Archive.
- ↑However, Tchaikovsky seems to have discussed his plans to write an opera on this subject with the pianist Adele Aus der Ohe just days before his death in 1893. See Tchaikovsky and Carnegie Hall (2012), p. 95.
- ↑Passed by the censor on 24 November/6 December 1894.
- Opera derived from Shakespeare
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Romeo And Juliet OperaJoin Britannica's Publishing Partner Program and our community of experts to gain a global audience for your work! Chantal Schütz
If William Shakespeare’s ascendancy over Western theatre has not extended to the opera stage—a fact explained by the want of Shakespeare-congenial librettists, the literary indifference of composers, and the difficulties involved in setting iambic pentameters to music—the Shakespeare canon has nonetheless established itself as one of the great inspirers of operas. This is clear from the 200-odd operas based on Shakespeare’s plays, about half a dozen of which are among the rare monuments of operatic achievement. It is further demonstrated by an even more extended series of furtive references—moments of other operas that show signs of unmistakable Shakespearean family resemblance without any declared genealogical link to their source. Shakespeare’s plays have thus given rise, side by side, to a “legitimate” operatic offspring and to an anonymous operatic dissemination, a recorded and an unrecorded history of Shakespeare on the opera stage.
Opera derived from Shakespeare
Romeo And Juliet Opera Cast
The necessity of accommodating the formal unruliness and many-faceted characters of Shakespeare’s theatre to the succession of recitative and aria, elaborate scenery, and other conventions of opera makes adaptation of Shakespeare a hazardous business. Actor-manager David Garrick’s opera version of The Tempest (1756) was accused of “castrating” Shakespeare’s original play, while Lord Byron (in an 1818 letter to the poet Samuel Rogers) berated Gioacchino Rossini’s librettist for “crucifying” Othello (1816).
Henry Purcell’s The Fairy Queen (1692) is usually dubbed the first Shakespearean opera. Its music, however, is confined to interludes within a curtailed A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Only in Dido and Aeneas (1689) did Purcell have the chance to write music for a tragic heroine of mythical status. Purcell’s only real opera, written for a cast of young girls, displays distinctly Shakespearean influences that can be safely ascribed to his librettist, the poet and playwright Nahum Tate, who was familiar with the canon. Tate consistently “improved” Shakespeare to suit new audience tastes, the most famous instance being the happy ending he appended to King Lear (Tate’s King Lear of 1681—in which Cordelia not only lives but marries Edgar—was in fact the only version to be presented on the English stage for the next 150 years). For Dido and Aeneas, Tate actually followed Virgil quite faithfully, with the exception of the addition of two Macbeth-inspired witch scenes that both complicate the action and introduce a considerable measure of doubt about the role of destiny in Aeneas’s decisions; Mercury here becomes a mere decoy sent by the witches to trick Aeneas with the overall purpose of hurting Dido. Yet this addition established a Shakespearean dimension that made this short opera appropriate for use as a “play within a play” in performances of Measure for Measure on the London stage in 1700. Indeed, such insertions of musical pieces in or after Shakespeare’s plays were customary in the 18th century: George Frideric Handel’s pastoral Acis and Galatea, for example, was performed at Drury Lane in 1724 as an afterpiece for The Tempest.
Opera seria and opera buffa
It is tantalizing, with regard to Shakespearean dramaturgy, to note that opera was born in Florence in 1600—about the time that Hamlet first voiced Shakespeare’s views on acting. Shakespeare and the theorists of opera expressed similar concerns about language and performance. (See alsoSidebar: Shakespeare on Theatre.) Opera prospered, and Venice started opening public opera houses in 1637; in 1642 Puritan London closed its theatres. Italian opera reached London only at the beginning of the 18th century, when it immediately became a fashion and divided the public. Shakespeare was called upon in this contest: the “rude mechanicals’ ” play from A Midsummer Night’s Dream was turned into a caricature of Italian opera in Richard Leveridge’s A Comick Masque of Pyramus and Thisbe (1716). Some 30 years later (1745), J.F. Lampe revived the book as a “mock opera,” complete with rage aria and contrived happy ending.
More antagonistic still were the reactions to Italian opera written on Shakespearean librettos. Francesco Gasparini’s Ambleto (Hamlet), having been played throughout Europe, was taken to London in 1712 by the celebrated castrato Nicolini but quickly disappeared from the scene. Francesco Maria Veracini’s Rosalinda (1744)—As You Like It staged as a polite Italian pastoral and written for a cast of female and castrato sopranos—suffered the same fate. Gli equivoci, an opera buffa by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s only English disciple, Stephen Storace, presents a different case. Written on a libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte (much in the spirit of his—and Mozart’s—The Marriage of Figaro) and auspiciously received in 1786 at the Vienna Burgtheater (now the Hofburgtheater) and throughout Germany, Gli equivoci, which is the only known setting of The Comedy of Errors, was considered too “Mozartian” and never made its way to London.
Others, such as J.C. Smith and the aforementioned David Garrick, both used and challenged the Italian opera fashion. While their opera on The Tempest, as well as The Fairies (1755), where the Prologue jokingly attributes authorship to a “Signor Shakespearelli,” were poorly received, Garrick’s Tempest book was successfully revived in 1777 with music by the remarkable Thomas Linley (1756–78). Throughout the 18th century, The Tempest, like A Midsummer Night’s Dream, was never actually performed except as a musical entertainment.
After the turn of the century, composers of opera buffa (such as Antonio Salieri) and German singspiel (such as Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf) turned their eyes to Shakespeare’s more farcical vein. In 1849 Otto Nicolai, having declared that only Mozart could do justice to Shakespeare, wrote a successful opera on Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor (The Merry Wives of Windsor). Hermann Goetz’s Der Widerspenstigen Zähmung (1874; The Taming of the Shrew) made Kate fall in love with Petruchio almost at first sight—mutating Shakespeare’s self-confident antiheroine into a hochdramatisch 19th-century hysteric.
Women from theatre to opera
The twilight of opera seria and the advent of Romantic opera are epitomized by the emergence of the prima donna and the female conquest of the formerly castrato-dominated soprano region. Shakespeare’s female roles, because they were played by boys, were usually less developed than his male roles; with the notable exceptions of Rosalind (in As You Like It) and Cleopatra (in Antony and Cleopatra), Shakespeare’s female roles were far less significant. But the 19th-century primacy of the soprano extends to many other Shakespearean female roles, turning them into major parts.
Rossini’s Otello (1816), the first opera seria with a tragic ending, poises three tenors—Iago (the villain), Rodrigo (the rejected lover), and Otello (the interloper)—against a besieged Desdemona who outweighs them all—and her basso father, Brabantio, to boot. Following the 18th-century French “translation” of Othello by Jean-François Ducis, Rossini replaces the handkerchief, that shockingly intimate piece of female lingerie, with the more acceptable misdelivered, unaddressed letter of Italian comedy. The French poets Victor Hugo and Alfred de Vigny made endless fun of this “improvement,” yet the painter Eugène Delacroix was so impressed by this reading that his paintings show Desdemona, not Othello, as the protagonist. Most of the action in the first acts is indeed forced into the mold of conventional opera seria. It contains bravura arias for all the soloists and dramatic grand finales that only distantly relate to the subtle progression of the Shakespearean narrative. Contrary to the stage version, which travels from Venice to Cyprus and involves lowlife characters such as prostitutes and gulls, the whole opera is set in magnificent palaces in Venice, staging mostly polite exchanges between members of a single noble class of individuals governed by acceptable passions. Yet in the final act of this seminal opera, Rossini introduced a quotation from Dante’s Inferno, sung by a passing gondolier, which prompts Desdemona to sing an elaborate Willow Song that she accompanies on her harp, followed by a very moving prayer, leading on to the murder scene and a terse conclusion. Otello is the only Rossini opera to end in this manner, and the influence of this last act on 19th-century opera has proved enduring and far-reaching.
The passionate “Shakespearien” Hector Berlioz put the sopranos in the forefront in his last work, Béatrice et Bénédict (1862), based on the “merry war” subplot of Much Ado About Nothing. Shakespeare was a never-ending inspiration to Berlioz, notably in his Roméo et Juliette choral symphony (composed 1839). Romeo and Juliet has proved to be an all-time favourite for opera composers, prompting more than 20 versions. In adaptations by such composers as Nicola Antonio Zingarelli and Nicola Vaccai, the part of Romeo is sung by a mezzo-soprano, to the disapproval of Berlioz, who preferred, for this and other reasons, Daniel Steibelt’s Roméo et Juliette (1793). I Capuleti, a vehicle for the famous Grisi sisters (Giuditta and Giulia), privileged female ensembles and conquered the public in the lovers’ final duet by means of a timely awakening of Giulietta—an ending popularized by Garrick. Juliette is a sophisticated coloratura in Charles Gounod’s 1867 opera (termed by Rossini “a duet in three parts: one before, one during, and one after”), overdeveloped, like the Ophelia of Ambroise Thomas’s Hamlet (1868), at the expense of male partners. Other examples of that tendency include Saverio Mercadante’s Amleto (1822), where the part of Hamlet is sung by a woman, and a verismo opera renamed Giulietta e Romeo (1922) by Riccardo Zandonai.
Romeo And Juliet Opera Facts
Both Gounod’s and Thomas’s librettos were written by the successful team of Jules Barbier and Michel Carré, who together and separately or with others authored the librettos of some of the most enduring French operas. The plot of Gounod’s Roméo et Juliette is fairly faithful to the original, doing away with many secondary characters and expanding others (the page Stefano, for example, who is unnamed in Shakespeare’s tragedy, has a memorable aria). The major departure from the original plot is once again the reawakening of Juliette just in time for a pathetic duet with Romeo before both die, begging God’s forgiveness for their unchristian suicide.
The opera, which begins with the ball scene at the Capulets’, overdramatizes several episodes, including the first appearance of Juliet, the revelation (by Tybalt rather than her nurse) of Romeo’s identity to Juliet, and Juliet’s fake death, which occurs just as her father has taken her arm to lead her to the chapel to marry Paris. In short, it possessed all the ingredients for success and was an immediate hit. It has remained in repertoire along with Faust, Gounod’s other adaptation from a literary masterpiece.
Romeo And Juliet Opera Wikipedia
In the early 1990s Thomas’s Hamlet, after a long period of neglect, began once again to be performed by celebrated singers on prestigious stages and to be recorded. The opera poises Hamlet mostly against Gertrude, his mother, and his beloved Ophelia, but it also offers interesting insights into the political questions that troubled France at the time it was written, two years before the end of the Second Empire: Gertrude knows all about the murder of her former husband by Claudius (her current husband), and Hamlet rejects Ophelia only when he realizes that Polonius was an accomplice in the deed. In the “mousetrap” scene the seemingly mad Hamlet pulls the crown off Claudius’s head, prompting a finale of epic proportion, as the Court comments on this act of lèse-majesté. In the final scene, at the graveyard, the ghost of Hamlet’s father appears for a third time, visible to all this time, demanding action from Hamlet, who immediately kills King Claudius, thus restoring legitimacy to the throne and bringing stability to his tormented country. The opera ends to the sound of the people shouting “Vive Hamlet! Vive notre roi!”
In Das Liebesverbot (1836), Richard Wagner’s only Shakespeare opera and the only extant setting of Measure for Measure, the Duke’s role is entirely devolved to Isabella, who secretly loves the freethinker Lucio. The original performances were a complete failure, and the piece all but disappeared from the repertoire. Some performances in the mid-to-late 20th century, as well as recordings, however, have saved the work from utter oblivion and shed light on Wagner’s formative years, when he was still attempting to write mainstream music.
As for the prominent role of the soprano in Giuseppe Verdi’s Macbeth (1847), it is due to Shakespeare himself: Verdi simply recognized that Lady Macbeth’s soliloquies read exactly like opera solos. His instruction that she “should not sing at all” is echoed in Ernest Bloch’s Macbeth (1910), where the orchestra plays the leading part, providing counterpoint, depth, and tragic irony that voices alone cannot convey. Like Thomas’s Hamlet, Verdi’s Macbeth reflects the political situation in the composer’s homeland in more ways than one: the tyrannical authority of the usurpers is opposed by Scottish exiles clamouring for liberty. The chorus of the Profughi Scozzesi is an echo of “Va, pensiero,” the famous chorus from Nabucco that became an anthem in the struggle for Italian unity—prompting Verdi’s name to become an acronym for the motto “Vittorio Emmanuele, Re d’Italia.”
Romeo And Juliet Opera Songs
Rossini’s Otello was saved by the memory of Shakespeare’s, as Stendhal put it. Twentieth-century adaptations swung in the opposite direction: in Mario Zafred’s Amleto (1961) or Frank Martin’s Der Sturm (1956), the parlando music encumbers Shakespeare’s words; literal readings by Reynaldo Hahn (1935) and Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco (1961) have resulted in two disproportionately lengthy versions of The Merchant of Venice.